Basic Knowledge of Navigation Mark

1.Describe the general function of navigation marks in brief.

A: Generally, navigation marks have four functions, which are positioning, risk warning, validation and traffic directing.


2.Describe the classification of navigation marks in brief.

   A: By working principles: visual navigation marks, audible navigation marks, radio navigation marks;

By locations: coastal navigation marks, inland river navigation marks;

By technical equipment: luminous navigation marks, nonluminous navigation marks, audible navigation marks, radio navigation marks;

And others: public navigation marks, special navigation marks.


3.What are the renewable energy sources used on navigation marks?

A: Solar, wind and wave power.


4.How many kinds of navigation marks are there in China Sea Regions, and explain the applications.

A: Five, which are:

1) lateral marks;

2) direction marks;

3) isolated danger marks;

4) safe water marks;

5) special marks;


5.How to show the mark characteristics at night?

A: The color and rhythm of light.


6.What are main functions of VTS?

A: Information service, navigation service, transportation organization, joint service and emergency service.


7.How many satellites are needed to obtain the three-dimensional coordinate of a ground point?

A: Four.


8.The cable type 9 in “RTCM SC-104” standard is what cable type exclusively used in RBN-DGPS station transmit?

A: Pseudo-range correction.


9.AIS is the abbreviation of what system?

A: Automatic Identification System.


10.What are three main applications of AIS stated by IMO include?

A: Avoiding collision to ships; acquiring information of ships and cargoes to coastal countries; performing vessel traffic service as VTS equipment.


11.How many kinds of launching messages of AIS navigation marks are there?

A: Three. They are No.6 message, No. 8 message, No. 21 message.


12.What is the abbreviation of long range identification and tracking system?



13.What is the definition of the navigation mark?

A: It is the device or system providing navigation-supporting information service for various safe, economical and convenient marine activities.


14.What categories can coastal navigation marks management be classified into?

A: Five, which are planning, building, maintaining, protecting of navigation marks, supervising and inspecting.


15.What is the management requirement (16-word) of visual navigation marks in Sea Area Navigation Marks Operation Rules?

A: Accurate position of marks, good condition of lights, brightly colored, well structured.


16. When navigation safety is severely threatened by new danger, the danger can be marked by radar responder. What is its Morse code?

A: D


17.What aspects does distribution design of navigation marks include?

A: It includes: geophysical equipment; equipment, mark structure; light range, light characteristic; mark types; device configuration.




18.What does the document of Ministry of Communications aerial survey quality management system include?

A: It includes: quality manual, program document, operation instruction and quality record.


19.What does aerial survey service implementing procedure include?

A: It includes: strategic process, key process and supporting process.


20.Please describe navigation mark service in brief.

A: It provides and maintains navigation marks in coastal areas of China and water areas with ports, including navigation marks planning, setting, maintaining, and updating and releasing of related information.